studies on Clockmakers of the Northeast:|
Daniel Burnap, Thomas Harland,
& the Suffield Tower Clock.
© Donn Haven Lathrop 1996
This paper is a continuation of an inadvertent series which began with a
study of the horological works of Phinehas J. Bailey of Chelsea,
Vermont. His relationships with other clockmakers of that area and era
and his comments on them in his 'Memoirs' encouraged an examination of
the lives, the relationships, and the works of several other early
makers. Someone dropped a rock in my research puddle, and over the
years the ripples have spread rather widely.
While it may seem that this paper makes a number of assumptions, it is
instructive to recall that many discussions and conclusions---whether
early or recent, verbal or written---of the vita of the early
American clockmakers are also based on assumptions. The data are just
not there in a complete and concrete form, and we have to interpret them
as best we can, using all the pertinent, perhaps peripheral, data we
have at the time. Later research, the discovery of new data, or a
different interpretation of those data at hand may challenge or refute
that which has been taken as Gospel for many years. It is with this
perspective, and in this spirit, that this paper is presented. This
paper is, indeed, written in the spirit of Mr. Hoopes' statement in his
introduction to The Shop Records of Daniel Burnap: "On these
and many other subjects the present notes raise more questions than they
answer. If they serve in some measure to encourage further study of
the methods, customs, and products of our eighteenth-century craftsmen,
both the author and the publisher will be well repaid for the efforts
bestowed upon Daniel Burnap's papers."
In 19621 Charles Bissell wrote that he had found the remains
of the 'Suffield [Connecticut] Tower Clock', which he claimed was "made
by Daniel Burnap of East Windsor and Coventry", based on Penrose R.
Hoopes' book, The Shop Records of Daniel Burnap.2 The
clock had graced the steeple of the Suffield Meeting House from
(possibly as early as) 1786 until 1836, when "The steeple was literally
pulled down and crashed to the ground, clock and all."3
The works, the weights, and the wood pendulum rod disappeared, but after a
thirty year search are all eventually accounted for in Mr. Bissell's
article. The works and the weights are now in the collection of the
Connecticut Historical Society in Hartford. The pendulum rod was
evidently used to prop up an overloaded apple tree branch, eventually
broke, and rotted away.
Penrose R. Hoopes' The Shop Records of Daniel Burnap records that
Burnap is known to have made at least one tower clock,4
most likely a clock for South Hadley, Massachusetts. A record of the
order for this clock is dated "South Hadley, Nov. 2nd 1802". George
D. Seymour5 wrote (perhaps speculatively---we don't know
whether he actually visited the work-room) of "the unbelievably big
models for the hands of a steeple clock." in Burnap's Andover attic
work-room. Mr. Seymour also quotes the Burnap Papers (Appendix 6);
concerning the "meeting-house clock for South Hadley", and the "steple"
clock therefor, of which Burnap wrote; "I think it is a matter of
uncertainty whether I shall be able to finish
1. BISSELL, Charles,
The Suffield Tower Clock Works:
Connecticut Historical Society BULLETIN, Vol. 27, No. 2, Pg. 54, ff.
2. HOOPES, Penrose R. The Shop Records of Daniel Burnap:
The Connecticut Historical Society, 1958. Pg. 116.
3. It is rather stunning that the clock and the pendulum rod
survived this sort of treatment without being seriously damaged. I
will leave speculation on this point to the reader, but it certainly
sounds as though this is a real "Hail Mary" conclusion.
4. HOOPES, Penrose R. The Shop Records of Daniel Burnap:
The Connecticut Historical Society, 1958. Pg. 31.
5SEYMOUR, George Dudley, Daniel Burnap‹Master Clockmaker:
NAWCC BULLETIN # 105, Pg. 811
it so as to get it to you before sleighing." (Appendix 5.) But, there
is no specific record by Burnap that he built the Suffield clock. His
nephew's (Ela Burnap) correspondence on tower clocks from Rochester, New
York, (February 20, 1837) asks for construction details for a tower
clock, referring to "that clock we made when I was with you." Ela was
born in 1784, therefore he could not have seen the "clock we made when I
was with you" before 1799-1800, assuming he started his apprenticeship
at 15 or 16.6 These dates for the start of an
apprenticeship fit in rather nicely with the 1802 date for the South
Hadley clock, but leave the question of the Suffield clock wide open.
Ela had not yet been born in 1779, when his uncle very likely wrote his
"Form of the Suffield Clock".
Hoopes7 later writes: "In transcribing the manuscript of
Burnap's Memorandum Book...nothing has been added..., except as
noted---punctuation, capitalization, and paragraphing." The immediate
conclusion on reading through this transcription is that all the data in
the Memorandum Book are a sequence of notes made by Burnap during his
"working with Mr. Harland". It should be noted that this is his
Memorandum Book, not his Shop Records. It is most curious that the
description8 of the Suffield Clock appears in these notes,
and not in some other form later in Burnap's accounts. His sub-title:
"Form of the Suffield Clock", and the description9 of the
clock read as though he were taking notes in class. The various
sketches (some appear to be tracings of various tools) preceding the
'receipt' for the "Form of the Suffield Clock" strongly suggest that
Burnap was taking notes
6. Burnap advertised in
the Connecticut Courant, 4 April, 1791, for apprentices; "active boys
about 15 or 16 years old.", therefore Ela Burnap should have been about
15 years old.
7. HOOPES, Penrose R. The Shop Records of Daniel Burnap: Pg 107.
Also verified by an examination of the Burnap microfilm record.
8. Ibid. Pg. 116.
9. Ibid. Pg. 116.
assiduously, not assimilating the information over the years of an apprenticeship.
Harland was known to hold classes10
on various subjects for his 'pupils'---his apprentices and journeymen.
Why not a lecture on "The Specifications for an 'English Pattern' Tower
In corroboration of Hoopes' statement above,
the microfilm of Burnap's Record Book #2 begins thus:
"Norwich, September ye 8th AD 1779. Then I began
to work with Mr. Harland at clock making, and for further improvement
of said business, I now make this receipt...", then segues
into various drawings and 'receipts'---which 'receipts' are detailed
descriptions of how to make a clock, from plates to dial, how to set the
'Temper of Tools', to the 'Form of the Suffield Clock', etc.
Three items are of extreme interest in this excerpt: "Then I began to
work...at clockmaking...", "...for further improvement of said
business...", and the "Form of the Suffield Clock". The first is a very
curious statement for Burnap to make if he was indeed apprenticed with
Harland. One would think that an apprentice had done a good deal of
clockmaking by the end of his time. The phrase: "...further improvement
of said business...", implies that Burnap had
acquired some facility in clockmaking---but from whom?---and, that as a
possible journeyman, he was going for his Masters degree, so to speak.
It is rather unlikely that Burnap gained and refined all of his
clockmaking talents in less than a year. The sequence of the
'receipts', from that for an 8-day clock through the 'Form of the
Suffield Clock', 'A receipt for making Gold beeds', and the 'Prices of
gold and silver by weight' to the construction of a 'chime clock' again
suggests that these items were all written down as notes derived from
his observations, or from a series of 'lectures' from Mr. Harland.
There is certainly no visible break in the written
10. WILLARD, William, Thomas Harland, Clockmaker, Watchmaker
and Entrepreneur: NAWCC BULLETIN #295, Pg. 190.
narrative nor in the sequence of the (microfilmed) Memorandum Book's
pages to suggest that the description of the 'Form of the Suffield
Clock' was written at any other time than that during which Burnap was
taking notes. It doesn't strike me as logical that Burnap would recopy
all of the drawings and the 'receipts' in his Memorandum Book at a later
...and the beginning of...
Although there is no known record that Harland himself ever made a tower clock,
he did advertise in 177311
that he made 'church clocks'. Someone made the 'Suffield Tower Clock',
but I don't think it was Burnap. He either copied down the
specifications for that clock or he took his own measurements of an
already-constructed clock on display before its installation; whether he
did so in Norwich (which I suspect) or elsewhere is immaterial. I will
propose that the 'Suffield Tower Clock' was made by Thomas Harland, or
someone else working in the area at that time---most likely someone
else. It is thought by some that Harland trained in England---but
where, and with whom, no one knows for certain.12
Later research by Mr. William Willard postulates that the Harland name
originated in Ireland,13
and from thence the Harland family moved on to Paisley,
a small town southwest of
Mr. Willard proposes that Thomas Harland could have apprenticed with a
John Scott of Paisley.15
The 'chair-frame' clock is noted primarily as an English design native
to Yorkshire, not the Glasgow area. Regardless of the specifics of
Harland's origins and training, it is possible that he still had
contacts in Britain who could have been of assistance in procuring a
clock, if such was the case. In view of the changing political
atmosphere under William Pitt the Younger, by the year 1786 the
probability that the Colonies were once again importing material from
England is very real.16 Quite a few imported clocks in the
Northeast have been documented‹the earliest possibly being the 1702
(maker and fate unknown), very likely one-handed clock17
installed in Ipswich, Massachusetts.
Even Gawen Brown's 1766 tower clock in Boston is considered by some
scholars18 to be an import.
The 'Suffield Clock' is a 'chair-frame' clock, a peculiarly British
11. Ibid. Pg. 187, and
BAILEY, Chris H., Thomas Harland of Norwich;
Connecticut Historical Society, Vol. 51, No. 4, Pg. 228.
It is noted that Mr. Bailey's rendering of this advertisement
does not include the entire text.
12. BAILEY, Chris H., Thomas Harland of Norwich; Pg. 228 ff.
13. WILLARD, William, Thomas Harland, Clockmaker,
Watchmaker and Entrepreneur: Pg. 185
14. See BULLETIN #227, Pg. 741: Ms. Sara Steiner's notes
on Clockmakers of Rhode Island and Vicinity: "Mr. Dodge served his
apprenticeship with a Scotchman, named Harland, of Norwich, CT."
15. Note the comment in Ms. Sara Steiner's
Clockmaking in Rhode Island and Vicinity,
concerning Seril Dodge's apprenticeship with "a Scotchman named Harland of Norwich, CT",
in the Account of the Seventy-first Anniversary of the Providence Association of
Mechanics and Manufacturers
in BULLETIN #227, Pg 741ff.
16. HUSHER, Richard W., & WELCH, Walter W.,
A Study of Simon Willard's Clocks:
Printed by Addison C. Getchell & Son, Inc., Boston, Massachusetts. 1980. Pg. 266
17. WATERS, Thomas Franklin, Ipswich, in the Massachusetts Bay Colony:
The Ipswich Historical Society, Ipswich, Massachusetts. 1905. Vol.
1, Pg. 424. The first clock was replaced in 1762 (Vol. II, Pg. 440.)
and is currently being rebuilt after being damaged in a fire, and:
FELT, Joseph Barlow, History of Ipswich, Essex, and Hamilton:
C. Folsom, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1834. Pg. 243, ff.
18. HUSHER, Richard W., & WELCH, Walter W.,
A Study of Simon Willard's Clocks: Pg. 262.
design, but there are certain aspects of the construction of this
particular clock which point more toward an American rather than an
English origin. While its construction follows an obviously English
design, the use of wood for the base and the construction of the strap
frame both suggest that it was made in this country---the English
generally used all-metal frames after the 'doorframe' clock19
had fallen out of favor---the Colonies were so poor in metals that
the use of wood was a reinvention of necessity.
It may be argued that Suffield is much closer to East Windsor than it is
to Norwich, but neither distance nor the presence of a resident
clockmaker has ever been a barrier to the procurement and installation
of a tower clock. At this juncture we will ignore imports, although
very early English, French, and German imports have been noted (and
still exist) in various locations from Massachusetts to South Carolina.
In 1804, Major George Holbrook, then at work in Brookfield,
Massachusetts, installed a clock20 and a bell in Chester, New Hampshire,
nearly 70 miles to the northeast, and then in 1810 installed a clock and a bell21
in East Windsor---Burnap's back yard---about 50 miles away. As the
crow flies, it is about 80 miles (with a major river and two mountain
ranges intervening) from Charlestown, New Hampshire, to Troy, New York.
In 1824, Stephen Hasham loaded a tower clock in a wagon, hauled it over
the river and the mountains to Troy---in the back yard of makers such
as the Hanks and Meneely. His clock still stands, albeit mute,
19. BEESON, C. F. C., Clockmaking in Oxfordshire 1400-1850:
The Antiquarian Horological Society.
Printed by the Thanet Printing Works, Church Hill, Ramsgate, England. 1962
20. PARSONS, Charles. S., Blasdel Clockmakers:
Unpublished manuscript in the Library of the NAWCC. November, 1957. Pg. 5
21. SHELLEY, Frederick M., The Tower Clocks of Windsor, CT:
NAWCC BULLETIN; # 299, Pg. 773, and The Holbrook Dynasty: #300, Pg. 31., and
PARSONS, Charles S., Blasdell Clockmakers: Pg. 5, (unpublished manuscript)
records this installation in 1804 by Major George Holbrook in Chester, New Hampshire.
broken, and covered with the neglectful grime of a century, in the
steeple of the First Baptist Church in Troy. In 1840, a George Handel
Holbrook (Holbrook worked in East Medway [now Millis], about 20 miles
southwest of Boston) clock and bell were installed in Chelsea,22
Vermont---nearly 140 miles away. Again, as the crow flies, it is
roughly 50 miles overland from Norwich to Suffield, therefore the
distance involved certainly would not have been a barrier.
Transportation by water from Norwich to Suffield would have been even
Regardless that Burnap evidently did not record cash payments for many
of the clocks he made, one would think that he would somehow have made
some mention of the construction of a clock of this size---and very
likely the sizeable sum he charged for the clock. An endeavor of this
magnitude could have required the services of a blacksmith for the iron
frame, possibly a carpenter for the dove-tailed wooden frame and
(probably) the hands, and certainly a great deal of publicity upon the
occasion of the clock's installation. Even though we know he made at
least one tower clock, we just don't know which one it was, Suffield or
South Hadley. Mr. Bissell saved us a bit of horological history to
puzzle over, obviously with the best of intentions, but there is the
distinct possibility that he put two and two together and got something
other than four.
The Suffield Tower Clock aside for the moment, there appears to be some
question as to whether Burnap actually apprenticed with Harland. Burnap
wrote (in a remaining fragment of his [probable] first Record Book)
that on "Tuesday, December ye 9th AD 1777.
Then I began to keep school att Easthaddam.
I was then in ye 19th Year of my Age",
with a repetition of that statement for "November
22. What goes around, comes around.
I started in Chelsea, did I not?
ye 10th, AD 1778. Then I began to keep school att Easthaddam.
I was then in ye 20th Year of my Age" and then "June ye 1st, AD 1779.
Then I went to live at Windham, and Returned on Monday ye 5th day of July."
He later wrote that on "Wednesday, September ye 5th AD 1779.
Then I went to live at Norwich." and "Norwich, September ye 8th AD 1779.
Then I began to work with Mr. Harland at clock making..."
The last of the entries reads: "Thursday, July ye 7th, AD 1780.
Then I went to work with Mr. J. Fairchild at Windsor."
That's an eleven month
'apprenticeship' in the days of 5 to 7 year apprenticeships.
It may be argued that because the course of Burnap's apprenticeship coincided
with the upheavals of the Revolutionary War, as a consequence, he was
granted some sort of release to teach school during those two
but where was he, and what was he doing, in the interim? As far as we
know, none of Harland's other apprentices were similarly affected by the
Daniel Burnap was born 1 November, 1759.
If he apprenticed at 14 in 1773, his term should have run until 1780.
Philip Zea23 wrote that Harland insisted on a full seven year term for his
apprentices, which is reasonable given Harland's probable training under
the provisions of Queen Elizabeth's 1563 Statute of Artificiers,24
a law which had survived with little change for over two centuries.
This statute established a uniform national requirement which specified a
seven year apprenticeship for either master or journeyman; the
apprentice, regardless of family position or wealth, served his
term---period. Burnap's record of at least three major
interruptions---between late 1777 and mid-1779---in his probable
23. ZEA, Philip, To making one of Saturn's moons:
Jedidiah Baldwin and the Urbanization of the Upper Connecticut River Valley,
Unpublished manuscript in the Special Collections of Baker Library,
Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire. 1979. Pg. 7.
24. TREVELYAN, George M.; A History of England,
Doubleday & Co. Inc., Garden City, New York. 1953. Vol. II, Pg. 137.
unusual, to say the least. We don't know exactly how long each of these
'interruptions' lasted (except the last---a little over a month). It
was customary (and necessary) that school was taught during the winter
months so the children could work on the family farm during the more
labor-intensive seasons. It is highly unlikely that Daniel had some
sort of dispensation from Harland which permitted him to continue his
apprenticeship via correspondence course. Either that or Burnap began
his apprenticeship at the age of 11. Mr. Willard (pers. com.) has
discovered that the 14-year old Burnap was in Coventry collecting old
brass and other materials in aid of the coming war effort, and that the
following June (1774) he was living with a schoolteacher aunt in
Burnap and his alleged apprenticeship with Harland have defied any sort
of research logic (as have many of those who have blithely written of
his life and activities) ever since I read that Stephen Hasham
apprenticed with him, while I was doing research on Hasham.25
I then ended up doing research on Burnap, a task that bears a distinct
resemblance to "carrying coals to Newcastle," considering the paper and
ink that have been expended by others on him and his particulars.
Hasham was orphaned in Grafton, Massachusetts, in 1777, when he was 13.
And remember that the Revolutionary War was then two years into its
course, and not going too well for the Colonies. It is ridiculous to
expect that an orphaned 13-year old---the eldest of three remaining
children---would hike the fifty plus (as the crow flies) miles to
Coventry, Connecticut, and become the apprentice of someone who, if you
believe all the stories about Burnap, was in the midst of his own
"apprenticeship"---in Norwich, many miles away from Coventry. In other
words, Burnap was only 18 years old, couldn't possibly have achieved
his mastery as a clock maker, would shortly become a schoolmaster "at
Easthaddam." and wasn't even around to apprentice to. However, Ezra S.
Stearns wrote in 191426 that Hasham apprenticed with Willard,
and that statement has been faithfully and blindly copied ever since.
A quick check of dates and circumstances would have avoided this
error---Simon Willard lost his first wife and his infant son "to some
epidemic prevailing in Grafton at that time"27---an epidemic
that also likely killed Hasham's father and step-mother,
and Burnap was nowhere around.
And who was the mysterious Mr. J. Fairchild with whom Burnap worked
his "work with Mr. Harland at clock making..."?
It may have hyperbole on his part, but Burnap's first advertisement of 4 April,
1791, which states that he, having "for a number of years applied
principally to the business of Clockmaking...takes this method to inform
the publick that...Clockmaking is intended as the growing business of
his shop..." really makes one wonder at the specific emphasis on
clockmaking, because he had already trained the majority of his own
apprentices during that "number of years". We know that Burnap married
in 1782, and acquired property in 1785, but one still wonders exactly
what transpired during those years. Since Burnap intended
"Clockmaking...as the growing business of his shop" in 1791, it is odd
that he was then taxed as a goldsmith in 1797 and 1798, rather than as a
clockmaker. His account book lists the sale of four clocks between
1799 and 1802.
Chris Bailey wrote28 that Burnap "began his work at Norwich 8
September, 1779", but I find this difficult to reconcile with his later
25. NAWCC BULLETIN # 293, Pg. 723
26. STEARNS, Ezra S., Old Clocks in Fitchburg. II--Brass Clocks.
Read before the Society, 21 April, 1913. Proceedings of the Fitchburg
Historical Society. Vol. V., 1914. Pg. 135.
27. WILLARD, J. W., Simon Willard and his Clocks,
Dover Publications, New York. 1968. Pg. 5.
The Grafton connection has, of course, prompted speculation that Hasham
apprenticed with a Willard in Grafton. In that in 1777, Benjamin W. was
in York, Pennsylvania, Aaron was in the midst of his Army service, and
Simon had lost his first wife and their son to an "epidemic prevailing
in Grafton", the speculation is rather footless.
28. BAILEY, Chris H., Thomas Harland of Norwich, Pg. 231
statement29 that "He must have begun training with Harland
about 1774 when fifteen years old. He completed his apprenticeship but
returned in September, 1779, and worked as a journeyman in Harland's
shop until July, 1780." Logically, yes, but there is a bit too much of
an overlap in those dates, and this is difficult to reconcile with
Burnap's own statement that he "began to keep school" in 1777, after a
(possibly) mere three years with Harland. The entire question of
Burnap's apprenticeship seems to hinge on the similarities of his and
Harland's work, and on the recorded eleven months he spent with Harland.
Ela Burnap's letter from Rochester (10 October, 1827) about meeting a
Mr. Baldwin,30 "[who] served his time with Mr. Harland, says
he knows you and desires to be remembered." is often quoted in support
of Burnap's apprenticeship to Harland. Jedidiah Baldwin completed his
(seven-year) apprenticeship with Harland31 in 1791, and would
have encountered Burnap during the latter's known 11-month sojourn in
Norwich. If Seril Dodge had encountered Burnap as a fellow apprentice,
he would have mentioned him in his interview for the 'Mechanics
Festival' held in Providence, Rhode Island, on 28 February, 1860.32
Dodge did mention Jedidiah Baldwin, who left Norwich in 1791, after
Burnap's 'apprenticeship', and Jedidiah's brother Jabez, who left
Hanover, New Hampshire in about 1798, after his apprenticeship with
Jedidiah. The noted (and commented upon at length) similarities of
29. Ibid. Pg. 236
30. ZEA, Philip, Clockmaking and Society at the River
and the Bay--Jedidiah and Jabez Baldwin, 1790-1820:
Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife. Annual proceedings.
Boston University: Boston. 1981. Pg. 53., and
HOOPES, Penrose R. The Shop Records of Daniel Burnap: Pg. 31
31. ZEA, Philip, To making one of Saturn's moons:
Jedidiah Baldwin and the Urbanization of the Upper Connecticut River
Valley, 1793-1811. Pg. 6
32. See BULLETIN #227, Pg. 740 ff:
Ms. Sara Steiner's notes on Clockmakers of Rhode Island and Vicinity.
Burnap clocks, i.e., the engraving of the dial, the dial mounting
technique---or lack of technique as some would have it---could easily
arise from observations Burnap made during his short stay with Harland.
In sum, the attribution of the 'Suffield Tower Clockworks' to Burnap's
hand is based on Mr. Bissell's assumption that this clock was made by
Daniel Burnap, solely on the basis of the specifications which are
written in Burnap's Memorandum Book. Daniel Burnap's apprenticeship
with Thomas Harland is also based on conjecture; there is no specific
record that Burnap signed an indenture as an apprentice, nor did he
apparently spend any great (consecutive) length of time in Norwich.
Recent data reveals that Burnap required that his apprentices sign an
indenture33 (Daniel Porter; 18 February, 1793). The entire
fabric of Burnap's apprenticeship literally hangs on Burnap's statement:
"Norwich, September ye 8th AD 1779. Then I began to work with Mr.
Harland at clock making...". It is extremely curious that these eleven
months seem to have been transmuted into a full-blown apprenticeship.
Rather bluntly, Burnap was not
an apprentice of Thomas Harland's. He worked as a journeyman in
Harland's shop. He did not build the so-called "Suffield Clock," but he
did record the particulars of its construction. There may well be an
unrecorded tower clock maker still waiting to be discovered.
It is all too easy to raise doubts about the work and the training of
someone who lived two hundred years ago. But, this 'all too easy' is
immediately made difficult by the necessity of resolving those doubts. I
don't know what I will be able to resolve. I do know that I don't like
to see another 'anonymous' or 'attributed' tower clock. I may have
tried to put two and two together---and it may be that my answer is not
four. And perhaps that will lead someone else to look into this matter
and correct me. That's what research is all about, whether horological,
geological, or any other -ogical you wish. Someone started somewhere,
years ago, and from that point on various researchers have built on that
initial foundation. It is, however, extremely
33. Sperling, David A. MD: Feature article in Maine
Antiques Digest, April, 1996, Pg. 13-F
critical that the researcher must be as accurate as possible. The
(either careless or inadvertent) repetition of errors perpetrated at
some point in the past over which the passage of time has drawn its
obscuring veil must be avoided at all costs---the suspicious fact must
always bear its scarlet letter. The building resting on that initial
foundation may be re-modelled as later (and we hope, correct) data
appears. The seeker after truth is advised to check
the writings on a subject, rather than relying on any single one. An
appropriate analogue is the thesis writer's need to check
of the literature affecting a particular subject, rather than only the
most recent, or a randomly selected list of literature.
The reader will notice that in this country horological research has gone
far beyond the simplicity of Hannah Moore's The Old Clock Book,
but hers was an extremely difficult and pioneering task---there was not
the vast collection of data available to her that the modern researcher
takes for granted. Neither Mr. Bissell nor Mr. Hoopes had the
resources and references which we have today, but I suspect they both
did the best they could with the material at hand. That's all that's
BAILEY, Chris H., Thomas Harland of Norwich; Connecticut Historical Society,
Vol. 51, No. 4.
BEESON, C. F. C., Clockmaking in Oxfordshire 1400-1850:
The Antiquarian Horological Society.
Printed by the Thanet Printing Works, Church Hill, Ramsgate, England. 1962.
BISSELL, Charles, The Suffield Tower Clock Works:
Connecticut Historical Society BULLETIN, Vol. 27, No. 2.
Connecticut Courant, 4 April, 1791.
FELT, Joseph Barlow, History of Ipswich, Essex, and Hamilton:
C. Folsom, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1834.
FLYNT, Henry N. & FALES, Martha Gandy, The Heritage Foundation Collection of Silver,
with Biographical Sketches of New England Silversmiths, 1625-1825:
The Heritage Foundation, Old Deerfield, Massachusetts. 1968.
HOOPES, Penrose R. The Shop Records of Daniel Burnap:
The Connecticut Historical Society, 1958.
HUSHER, Richard W., & WELCH, Walter W., A Study of Simon Willard's Clocks:
Printed by Addison C. Getchell & Son, Inc.,
Boston, Massachusetts. 1980.
PARSONS, Charles. S., Blasdel Clockmakers:
Unpublished manuscript in the Library of the NAWCC.
SEYMOUR, George Dudley, Daniel Burnap---Master Clockmaker: NAWCC BULLETIN # 105.
SHELLEY, Frederick M., The Tower Clocks of Windsor, Connecticut:
NAWCC BULLETIN; # 299.
____, The Holbrook Dynasty: NAWCC BULLETIN; #300.
SPERLING, David A. MD: Feature article in Maine Antiques Digest, April, 1996.
STEARNS, Ezra S., Old Clocks in Fitchburg. II---Brass Clocks.
Read before the Society, 21 April, 1913.
Proceedings of the Fitchburg Historical Society. Vol. V., 1914.
STEINER, Sarah, Clockmakers of Rhode Island and Vicinity: NAWCC BULLETIN #227.
TREVELYAN, George M.; A History of England, Doubleday & Co. Inc.,
Garden City, New York. 1953. Vol. II.
WATERS, Thomas Franklin, Ipswich, in the Massachusetts Bay Colony:
The Ipswich Historical Society, Ipswich, Massachusetts. 1905. Vol. 1.
WILLARD, J. W. Simon Willard and His Clocks: Dover Publications, New York. 1968.
WILLARD, William, Thomas Harland, Clockmaker, Watchmaker and Entrepreneur:
NAWCC BULLETIN #295.
ZEA, Philip, To making one of Saturn's moons:
Jedidiah Baldwin and the Urbanization of the Upper
Connecticut River Valley, 1793-1811.
Unpublished manuscript in the Special Collections of Baker Library,
Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire. 1979.
____, Clockmaking and Society at the River and the Bay--Jedidiah and Jabez Baldwin,
Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife. Annual proceedings.
Boston University: Boston. 1981.
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